Over the last decades, there is a growing acknowledgement that climate and weather changes are modifying the panorama in several infrastructure sectors (e.g., water and waste), due to its impact on the occurrence and severity of extreme events. Furthermore, these and other changes will most likely deepen in the future increasing the net damage costs, challenging our society and our environment. Those threats will doubtlessly disrupt multiple systems and sectors, with critical impact in services of general economic interest, mainly in situations prone to adverse exposure and vulnerability, requiring a sustainable management. Indeed, more attention has to be devoted to understanding and managing the transition from current management regimes to more adaptive regimes at the ecosystem and resource level, as well as the human systems level. Such shift has to be based on proper planning procedures and guidelines, able to promote suitable risk management frameworks, allowing for improved response and recovery stages. This cycle must then be ‘closed’ with a continuous improvement approach based on lessons learnt and improvements achieved guiding to improved outcomes.

Thus, the requirement to take into account environmental, technological, economic, institutional and cultural characteristics, when developing new scientific methods and practical tools, is paramount. This raising importance to fulfill both technical and governance issues in order to counter current problems and avoid widespread predicaments will certainly contribute to devise increasingly sustainable environments.